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Historical and Social Science Analysis Skills
Grades 9-12

The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, the content standards for grades nine through twelve. They are to be assessed only in conjunction with the content standards in grades nine through twelve.

In addition to the standards for grades nine through twelve, students demonstrate the following intellectual, reasoning, reflection, and research skills:

Chronological and Spatial Thinking

  1. Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
  2. Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.
  3. Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods.
  4. Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.

Historical Research, Evidence, and Point of View

  1. Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations.
  2. Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations.
  3. Students evaluate major debates among historians concerning alternative interpretations of the past, including an analysis of authors' use of evidence and the distinctions between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications.
  4. Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations.

Historical Interpretation

  1. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
  2. Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.
  3. Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.
  4. Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.
  5. Students analyze human modifications of landscapes and examine the resulting environmental policy issues.
  6. Students conduct cost/benefit analyses and apply basic economic indicators to analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.

See Also:

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Resources on the SCORE H/SS pages were evaluated by history/social science leaders in California. Going beyond these links allows student access to unknown material. Each school site is responsible for evaluating resources for appropriateness in the local school community.

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