Historical and Social Science Analysis Skills
The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, the content standards for grades six through eight. They are to be assessed only in conjunction with the content standards in grades six through eight.
In addition to the standards for grades six through eight, students demonstrate the following intellectual reasoning, reflection, and research skills:
Chronological and Spatial Thinking
- Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.
- Students construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying.
- Students use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.
Historical Research, Evidence, and Point of View
- Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.
- Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories.
- Students distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifiable from unverifiable information in historical narratives and stories.
- Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them.
- Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author's perspectives).
- Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.
- Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long- and short-term causal relations.
- Students explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.
- Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.
- Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.
- Students interpret basic indicators of economic performance and conduct cost-benefit analyses of economic and political issues.