February is Black History Month, a special time to recognize the achievements of African Americans and to learn more about the hard fought story of Civil Rights in America. There are countless websites with information on these achievements, many on SCORE History-Social Science. Here are a few that align well with California's curriculum standards. You will certainly want to make them part of your classroom.

If your favorite site is not found here, please make a submission to SCORE by sending an e-mail to peg_hill@sbcss.k12.ca.us

General Web Resources

CNN Black History Month
This list of websites and articles gives the history of Black History Month and a selection of web resources to study the achievements of African Americans. Features include A Legacy of Black Talent which will profile, each day of the month, a man or woman who has made a lasting contribution, ranging from literature, music, and the arts to science and technology.

Education First's Black History
Here are six websites that integrate the World Wide Web and video conferencing into classroom learning.

Encyclopedia of Slavery
This Spartacus site has a wealth of information, all cross linked among the names and topics, for anyone beginning research on a person or event related to slavery. Beginning with 32 slave accounts by people famous and obscure, the site then provides 14 articles on the slave system including the slave trade and life on different types of plantations. Following this are 14 articles on life in enslavement and 24 articles on events and issues from the Amistad Mutiny to Reconstruction. There is a huge list of campaigners against slavery both American and British with biographical information on each. Standards 5.4.6, 8.6.4, 8.7 all, 8.9.1, 8.9.5, 8.10.4, and 8.11 all.

Web Resources for Elementary Classes

Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington was a great American. He believed that learning was the most important way to achieve success and happiness in life. Formerly enslaved, he worked to build a school so that all Americans would have the opportunity to learn.

Virtual Underground Railroad Quilt
Using a quilt drawing as the organizational tool, this elementary class project on the Underground Railroad has information on routes, leaders, code words, songs, and much more.

African Americans in History
Here are twenty-four brief biographies and pictures of major African Americans in American history. This is a good place to begin research on famous Americans.

Happy Birthday, Martin Luther King, Jr.
Here are links to a student-illustrated story and text of the "I Have A Dream" speech. Original artwork and stories are outstanding. These children's drawings about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s life will inspire you to develop a similar student project in your classroom.

Frederick Douglass Biography
This short biography of Frederick Douglass includes his three keys to success. It has three primary source speeches including The Church and Prejudice, Fighting Rebels With Only One Hand, and What the Black Man Wants.

Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement
This student-developed WebQuest on Martin Luther King is set at just the right level for elementary students.

Sojourner Truth

Born into slavery, Sojourner Truth was easily one of the earliest human and women's rights activists. Read the simple words that make her one of the great figures in American history.
Web Resources for Middle and High School

African American Odyssey
Description: This is incredible Library of Congress exhibit on the African American experience in American history is divided in nine sections: Slavery--The Peculiar Institution; Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period; Abolition; The Civil War; Reconstruction; Booker T. Washington Era; World War I and Postwar Society; Depression, New Deal, and World War II; and Civil Rights.

National Civil Rights Museum
This is an excellent site for Civil Rights history. It includes a virtual tour of the Civil Rights Museum.

Struggle for African-American Civil Rights and the Civil Rights Movement
This is a set of reviewed websites on the Civil Rights Movement. It is an incredibly rich resource for this important era in American history.

The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences
Profiled here are African American men and women who have contributed to the advancement of science and engineering. The accomplishments of the past and present can serve as pathfinders to present and future engineers and scientists. Add to elementary African Americans in History

The Terrible Transformation
At the beginning of the 17th Century, both rich and poor Britons see the newly established American colonies as the land of opportunity. As changes in England's economy and world of hardships in America stem the flow of white bond servants, English planters bring more enslaved Africans to America to raise their profitable tobacco, sugar, and rice crops and to provide other forms of labor in the North. Gradually, laws are enacted that define legal status by race, ensuring that Africans and their descendants will be slaves. Resistance leads to rebellions in South Carolina and New York. The impact of slavery is felt by everyone -- North and South, black and white, the enslaved and the enslaver.

To Live Like a Slave
This Colonial Williamsburg Journal article describes life as a slave in colonial Virginia. Its pictures and personal discussion make the writing interesting and accessible to students.

Bacon's Rebellion
It is the evening of September 19, 1676. Smoke and flames fill the sky above Jamestown, Virginia. The statehouse, a large church, 12 new brick houses, and six frame buildings are leveled by this manmade fire. Nathaniel Bacon and a combined group of freemen, indentured servants, and slaves revel in the aftermath of their victory. It is the time of Bacon's Rebellion.

Excerpts from Slave Narratives
This site has numerous links that provide excerpts from stories by and about slavery and the African American experience from 1682-1937. The resources are clear and accurate, but the format is mostly text and difficult for some students. The source is identified at the bottom of each passage.

Frederick Douglass
Some say that Frederick Douglass was the father of the Civil Rights Movement. This site is a virtual museum of the artifacts of his life.

African-American Mosaic
This exhibit from the Library of Congress covers four areas -- Colonization, Abolition, Migrations, and the WPA. The "back-to-Africa" movement represented by the American Colonization Society is vigorously opposed by abolitionists, and the movement of blacks to the North is documented by the writers and artists who participated in Federal projects of the 1930s.

Life and Works of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
This site has a brief background on Dr. King's life and work, with copies of many of his speeches and papers.

Photo Tour of the Civil Rights Movement
These photo pages by the Seattle Times reflect a sampling of images from the national Civil Rights movement and events that happened in the Seattle area. Rather than being a comprehensive archive, it is meant to bring the events to life and encourage further investigation.

Civil Rights Oral History Bibliography
This is a bibliography of Oral History Interviews on the Civil Rights movement in Mississippi. It contains transcripts of the oral histories collected in l997 of people with a variety of viewpoints about the Civil Rights movement. It was developed by the University of Southern Mississippi Center for Oral History and Cultural Heritage and the Tougaloo College Archives.

Letter from Birmingham Jail - Martin Luther King, Jr.
In this letter, Martin Luther King answers the criticism of fellow clergymen relating to the demonstrations and other civil disobedience of the Civil Rights movement. He outlines why he thinks the fight against injustice is the essential task for all Christians.

Lessons and Activities for U.S. History

Harriet Tubman: Guide to Freedom
In this SCORE Language Arts Cyberguide, students read Harriet Tubman by Ann Petry and then visit the Internet to gather information about Tubman. After reading, the students create an acrostic poem using either Harriet Tubman or descriptive words that characterize her. Students then create a timeline that includes Tubman's birth and death with five life events in between. Students also write five other details of Harriet's life along with five quotes from their reading.

Old St. Louis Courthouse: Site of the Dred Scott Case
Re-enact the Dred Scott case in this simple play set in the Old St. Louis Courthouse. The case has been called the pivotal event that led to the Civil War. After the Dred Scott ruling, abolitionists were discouraged that slavery could ever be ended through the law.

Fight for Equal Rights: Black Soldiers in the Civil War
The issues of emancipation and military service were intertwined from the onset of the Civil War. There were a series of laws passed to free slaves whose masters were in the Confederate military. Laws were changed to allow African Americans to fight for the Union. Examine documents including a recruiting poster from the time. Write a journal entry and compare the issues faced in the 1860s to those faced during the Korean War when the military was finally fully integrated.

How Should They Be Remembered? Evaluating the Lives and Legacies of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois.
By what standards should we judge people from the past? Do we hold them to the standards of our day or of theirs? Should we take into account their backgrounds and circumstances or hold up everyone to the same standards? These are some of the questions you will have to consider as you look back at the lives and legacies of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois. These two men both wanted to help uplift African-Americans from the wreckage of Reconstruction and the ravages of racism. During their careers, both Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois took up the issue of education for African-Americans. You will be looking at their lives and their writings and deciding for yourselves how you think these two men should be remembered.

Unfinished Business: Making Democracy Work for Everyone, 1877-1904
In this simulation, Theodore Roosevelt has called together five "All Deliberate Speed Committees" to investigate the problems and issues related to civil rights in the late 19th early 20th centuries and to offer solutions. It is your job to advise the President.

Jazz in America
Learn what jazz is (and what it is not) and how, where, and by whom it originated. Consider the disparity between American ideals and realities with regard to civil rights in American history and the role that jazz played as a symbol of cultural strength and as an outlet for social frustration. All this is through pictures and media clips.

Inside the Harlem Renaissance
Our class has been asked to produce a Black History video focusing on the Harlem Renaissance. The International Broadcast Corporation has asked that we include historical and cultural background, photographs and interviews with prominent African-Americans associated with the period.

African American Soldiers and the Revolutionary War: Sons of Liberty?
In all, an estimated 100,000 African Americans, about 20% of the African American population became free during the American Revolution. The majority of African Americans, however, remained enslaved. The American Revolution, then, presented an enormous opportunity for African Americans, but their actual experiences during the war were quite mixed. In this activity you will analyze a primary source to discover both the facts and their underlying meaning for African Americans during the Revolution. Scroll to page 62 of the document.

Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights Advocate
In groups, read nine documents from the National Archives and analyze them to determine the key issues of the Civil Rights movement. What were the issues that most impacted Jackie Robinson? If five hundred years from now, these nine documents are the only surviving pieces of evidence describing the Civil Rights struggle in the United States in the 20th Century, what information about that struggle would survive? How accurate would that information be?

"Separate But Equal" Revisited
Examine the struggle for desegregation during the Civil Rights movement and a current study that finds that American schools are reverting to segregation. First, examine the notion of "separate but equal" by reading the New York Times front page from the Brown v. Board of Education decision and by researching different events, legislation and organizations that influenced desegregation. Assess ways in which race relations have and have not changed since this historic decision, examine the recent "resegregation" study, and propose suggestions for addressing the school segregation issue to local, state or national leaders.

From Jim Crow to Linda Brown
The era of legal segregation in America, from Plessy v. Ferguson (1897) to Brown v. The Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas (1954), is seldom fully explored. It is important to develop an understanding of the complex themes and concepts of African American life in the first half of the 20th Century to provide a foundation for a more meaningful understanding of the modern Civil Rights Movement.

Little Rock 9 - Integration 0: A Collaborative Webquest on School Integration
Learn about nine African-American students who, back in 1957, chose to attend an all-white high school in Little Rock, Arkansas. They took these steps with the power of the U.S. Supreme Court backing them, but with armed soldiers blocking the entrance before them. Still, this WebQuest isn't just about history. It's about the world you live in, the choices your community has made in the past and those you will make in the future about dealing with school integration.

Riding the Bus - Taking a Stand
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, was arrested for refusing to obey a Montgomery bus driver's order to give her seat up for a boarding white passenger as required by city ordinance. Read and analyze the municipal and state laws designed to separate the races that were common in the South at the time. The arrest of Rosa Parks sparked a boycott against the city's bus line -- the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the beginning of the modern Civil Rights movement.

In What Ways Did the Civil Rights Movement Change America?
In this activity you will describe important events in the Civil Rights movement, appreciate what it was like to participate in those events, and explain how those events changed the lives of African Americans. Part of this is to explain the important role Martin Luther King, Jr., played in the Civil Rights movement. Recognize alternate views in the Civil Rights movement and compare them to the views of Dr. King. From today's perspective, evaluate the successes and failures of the civil rights movement.

The Legacy of Rosa Parks
The Mother of the Civil Rights Movement, Rosa Parks' dignified defiance in the face of segregation helped America and the world understand the power of nonviolent protest to create a more just society. Learn more about her remarkable life.

Jackie Robinson:
Civic Responsibility
Based on documents from the Civil Rights Era, respond to a list of possible scenarios and identify different ways in which citizens can take an active role in government policy-making.

Active Citizenship: The Civil Rights Work of Bob Moses
In the early 1960's, Bob Moses, working with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC or "snick"), organized a revolutionary grassroots movement that helped thousands of African Americans register to vote. This effort sparked a violent backlash from white Americans who resented this challenge to their rule. Moses was followed, threatened, jailed, and beaten. Being seen with him could get a African American person's house bombed and lead to arrest, beating, and death. Despite such challenges, Moses and his colleagues successfully improved the quality of life for African Americans as part of the civil rights movement.

In this lesson, Moses is profiled as an example of what one person can do to bring about social change. Students are then encouraged to follow suit by focusing on an issue.

Lessons and Activities for World History

Nubia - The Other Gift of the Nile
You have the opportunity to uncover Nubia’s story on a large scale. UNESCO (United Nations Educational and Scientific Conservation Organization) has already funded the construction of the Nubian Museum. The location is yet to be determined. UNESCO would like to extend this historic project by erecting a monument to symbolize Nubian history and accomplishments. The members of UNESCO’s Design Review Team envision a monument of grand proportions that would rival the many Egyptian monuments that continue to draw visitors from all over the world. They have asked you and your teammates to enter their Nubian Monument Design Competition.

Mali to Mecca: Mansa Musa Makes the Hajj
In the fourteenth century, the African Empire of Mali was a glittering jewel of scientific, mathematical, architectural, cultural and artistic achievement. Ruling over this glorious center of learning and culture was the devoutly Muslim ruler Mansa Musa. In 1324 AD, Mansa Musa, fulfilled one of the five pillars of Islam by making the Hajj or holy pilgrimage to Mecca. Become a member of Mansa Musa's court and participate in this once-in-a-lifetime journey to the holy city of Mecca! Become councilors in Mansa Musa's court charged with preparing a report on the short- and long-term effects of this journey on the future of the Empire of Mali.

The Museum Project
Working in teams by region, you will create a Museum of African Art. Find art on the web and organize an exhibit for others to see and learn. Each object must be annotated as to its origin and significance so the museum so that visitors will come to understand more about African culture.

Medieval African Kingdoms - A Problem-Based Activity
You are applying for a new position with TimeWrinkle.com, a travel agency that can transport people to all corners of the world as well as to any era in the past. Time Wrinkle.com is looking for a team that can promote travel to the Medieval kingdoms of Ghana, Mali and Songhay. Will you be part of the winning team? Your mission is to develop a winning promotional campaign for one of the three kingdoms of ancient western Africa. You will use the resources listed on the materials page to discover all you can about these kingdoms. You will need to learn about all three kingdoms because you will be judging the materials created by the other groups, not only for appearance, but also for accuracy and completeness.

Sundiata, Mali's Lion King
This ArtsEdge lesson introduces the legendary Malian king Sundiata Keita, known as the Lion King of Mali, by using elements of traditional Malian festivals. As students learn about Sundiata's thirteenth-century battle to liberate his people from an oppressive ruler, they will recreate the story in a masked festival that takes elements from two of the most important Malian ceremonies: the Dama and the Sirige. As students work in groups to design a Sundiata festival, they will create character masks based on animals whose qualities mimic the personalities of specific characters in the story. In preparation for this, students will research the behavior and habitat of the animals that on which their masks are based. Students will also explore archetypal patterns seen in myths about heroes such as Sundiata. Standard 7.4.1