vaqueros - Indian or Mexican - a superb horseman, highly skilled in the use of the reata, or lasso. Pay for a good vaquero was $12 to $15 a month plus primitive living quarters, food, horses, saddle, reata, and other necessary equipment.

adobe - clay bricks were made from mixture of clay, water, and straw, that were sun-baked

pueblo - village or town

tules - reeds native to Southern California, used by local Indian tribes for housing, baskets, and clothing

carreta - roughly made ox-cart