Amendment 9

The Bill of Rights

Amendment 1

Amendment 2

Amendment 3

Amendment 4

Amendment 5

Amendment 6

Amendment 7

Amendment 8

Amendment 9

Amendment 10


Teacher Notes

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

James Madison's 42 rights did not cover all of the individual protections that he believed citizens needed, and certainly the 10 that were approved did not either, so he included Amendment 9. It states that there are certain rights listed in the Constitution, but that does not mean that there aren't other rights that the people have that are not listed.

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  • Still, the Ninth Amendment has not yet been used to justify the protection of any right not already listed in the Constitution.

    So it is still a mystery about which rights Madison had in mind when he wrote the Ninth Amendment.

    It assures people that there are rights that members of a free society are entitled to, although neither Madison nor any of the other founding fathers ever stated just what they thought these rights were. Some people believe that they include the so-called natural rights including life, liberty, and property, or the right to pursue happiness.
    James Madison