Hispanic Heritage Month

September 15 through October 15

 

 

September 15 to October 15 is National Hispanic Heritage Month. According to the U.S. Census Bureau about 41 million people or 14% of the total population of the United States is of Hispanic origin. In California about one third of the population is Latino.
Integrating the study various cultures in the curriculum not only develops the cultural literacy of students, it makes the study of history, literature, and the arts richer, more authentic, and more engaging for students. This study provides a great counterpoint to the September celebration of Native American Day. Hispanic American-culture is intertwined with American Indian culture and many Latinos trace their cultural roots to the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Following are a small selection of lessons and resources to support the study of Hispanic Heritage Month and the study of the History-Social Science Content Standards.
.

Margaret ‘Peg’ Hill, Ph.D.
Director, SCORE H-SS

 

 

Elementary and Middle School

 

Place Names

Many U.S. and California place names are Spanish in origin. Post a large map of the U.S. or California and ask students to locate, tag on the map, and translate the following states and cities using an online Spanish-English dictionary such as Yahooligans http://yahooligans.yahoo.com/reference/dict_en_es/ or a biographical dictionary: Standard 4.1.4, 4.1.5, 3.1

States:

Arizona, Colorado, Florida, and Montana.

Cities:

Mesa, Arizona; El Paso, San Antonio, Texas; Pueblo, Colorado; Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Bernardino, Sacramento, San Rafael, Alta Loma, La Mesa, San Gabriel, Santa Ana, San Pedro, Santa Barbara, Sierra Madre, Escondido, Paso Robles, Chico, Chula Vista, Chino, Palomar, Palo Alto, Ventura, Vista, El Centro, California; and Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Rivers:

            San Gabriel, Sacramento, Colorado, Columbia,

            Bodies of Water:

            Pacific Ocean

 

Notable Hispanic Americans

http://www.factmonster.com/spot/hhmbioaz.html

Use these brief biographies to create a montage of Hispanic achievement in various areas of endeavor such as explorers, writers, artists, or settlers to select people of interest for further research and reading. For longer more advanced online biographies see http://www.gale.com/free_resources/chh/bio/  Standards 1.5.1, 2.5, 3.3, 4.2 (most)

 

Celebrate Hispanic Heritage

http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/hispanic/index.htm

This Scholastic site has an easy-to-navigate section for the social studies classroom on Hispanic History in the Americas, a section with six biographies of prominent Latino-Americans today and another with historical biographies. Standards 1.5.2 and 3.3.1  

 

Lessons for Hispanic Heritage Month

http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/lesson/lesson203.shtml

This Education World site has activities that involve students in creating glossaries, reading and writing folktales, growing foods popular in Hispanic cultures, writing letters to members of the Hispanic Caucus in Congress, making population cartograms, and using literature to support students in creating bio poems and learning games. Standards 1.5.1, 2.5, and 3.3

 

An Interactive Study Environment on Spanish Exploration

and Colonization of "Alta California" 1774-1776

http://anza.uoregon.edu/default.html

This is a beautifully laid out bilingual site on Spanish exploration and colonization in California. It has primary documents such as diary and letter selections from Anza, Father Graces, and Font. A section with historical background puts the documents in context for easier understanding. Standard 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 5.2.2 and 5.2.4

 

Spanish Exploration and Conquest of Native America

http://www.floridahistory.com/inset11.html

Here is the conquest of America from a Native American perspective. Cabeza de Vaca's eight years in North America, starting in 1528, set the stage for Hernando de Soto to lead an army of settlers from Havana, Spain's "Ellis Island," into America in the 1540's. This is an extensive site with maps and primary source materials. It was written by Donald E. Sheppard and has received numerous awards including the American anthropology and History Award. Standards 5.2.2, 5.3.1, 5.3.4, 7.7.3, and 7.11.2

 

Spanish Missions of California

http://library.thinkquest.org/3615/

Take a virtual tour of a real Spanish Mission, and learn why they were an important part of California's history. Read about the everyday life of those who lived and worked here: the priests, the soldiers, and the native people. There's even a recipe for pozole, a common food served during those times. This site is rich with facts, photographs, maps, and audio tour guide readings. Need help with unfamiliar words? Check the hyperlinked glossary. Standards 3.3.1, 4.2.0, 4.2.3, 4.2.4, 4.2.5, 4.2.6, and 5.4.5

 

Spanish Colonial Frontier: Missions, Presidios, Pueblos

http://www.californiahistory.net/span_frame_main.htm

California was a colonial province of the Spanish empire during the years 1769 to 1821. Located on the northern frontier of New Spain, California was far removed from the cosmopolitan center of the empire. The central institutions of Spanish California were the Franciscan missions founded along the coast from San Diego to San Francisco. Presidios provided limited military protection while pueblos emerged as fledgling civilian centers. Standards 3.3.1, 4.2.0, 4.2.3, 4.2.4, 4.2.5, 4.2.6, and 5.4.5

 

Californio to American: A Study in Cultural Change

http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/8californio/8californio.htm  

This "Teaching with Historic Places" activity uses the Los Alamitos Ranch in Long Beach to trace history in southern California from Spanish land grant times, through the Mexican period to modern day. Examine primary sources including land grant maps, drawings of the buildings, aerial photos of the region today, and pictures of the interior of the house as furnished by the most recent occupants. Imagine what life at Los Alamitos would have been like during different eras. Standards 4.2.5, 4.2.8, 5.4.6 and 8.8.5

 

Missions and Moral Judgment

http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/spanishfrontier/bushnell.html

The mission is a topic that permeates the history of Spanish America. The sixteenth-century monks who undertook the spiritual conquest of their Spain's new lands by baptizing hundreds of thousands but also witnessed the rapid decline in native population. The seventeenth-century evangelists, less assured about the sincerity of native conversion, spent their lives on remote frontiers working to Christianize and westernize the Indians. The success with which they segregated their charges from outsiders was their undoing when the church lost power in later centuries. Missions differed across the Spanish Borderlands, as they differed throughout the Americas, and that variety was a function of time, place, and above all, the people involved. Standards 7.11.2 and 8.8.5

 

Spanish Colonization of the Americas

http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Spanish_colonization_of_the_Americas/

This encyclopedia-type article hot-links to further information. This article looks at Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, South America, Central America and North America. It then looks at the New World trade, and the northern extent of Spanish influence. Standards 5.2.2, 5.2.3 and 7.11.3

 

Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village

http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/66gran/66gran.htm

Learn about the Puebloan Indians before, during and after Spanish contact by examining the ruins of three villages in the Salinas Basin in central New Mexico that were home to Indian people from 1000 to the 1600s. Spain established missions throughout the Salinas basin in an attempt to Christianize and bring the roughly 10,000 Indian people living there into Spanish society. The mission system did not survive long in the Salinas basin, and by the late 1670s, the inhabitants of this once thriving area were all but gone. What happened? What can we learn about the people from studying the archaeology. Standards 5.3.1, 5.3.2 and 7.11.2

 

San Antonio Missions: Spanish Influence in Texas

http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/2sanantonio/2sanantonio.htm  

Mission San Antonio de Valero, the Alamo, was only one of a chain of missions strung along the San Antonio River. Established between 1718 and 1731, these missions were built not only to spread the faith of the conquistadors, but also to serve multiple foreign policy objectives for the Spanish government. Explore this group of 18th-century missions in modern San Antonio, Texas, to learn about Spanish influence on native peoples and the patterns of Spanish and then Mexican-American culture in the Southwest. Standard 5.8.5 and 8.8.5

 

Explorers of North America

http://www.win.tue.nl/cs/fm/engels/discovery/northam.html

This site is divided into six eras with hot-linked information to explorers in North America for each era. There is also a map for each of the eras but it is larger that the screen for must be printed at 50% or less. Standards 5.2.1, 5.2.3, 5.2.4, 7.11.1, and 7.11.2

 

Spanish America: Spanish Colonization in the North

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h438.html

This is a brief summary of the Spanish colonial experience in North America. It links to maps and a glossary. It has embedded hotlinks to more information on key North American explorers. Standards 5.2.2, 5.4.5, 5.85, and 8.8.5

 

Spanish Treasure Fleets of 1715 and 1733: Disasters Strike at Sea

http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/129shipwrecks/

From the mid 16th to the mid 18th century, heavily-armed Spanish fleets plied the waters between Spain and the Americas transporting massive amounts of New World treasure. Through this treasure fleet system, Spain created a mighty New World empire and became the most powerful nation in Europe. The fleets' return voyage—when the ships were laden with silver, gold, gemstones, tobacco, exotic spices, and indigo—was the most dangerous.  Standard 7.11.3

 

U.S. History Maps

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1193.html

This list of clear maps with in-depth annotations provides a summary of American history from colonial to modern times.

 

Middle and High School

 

Hispano Ranchos of Northern New Mexico: Continuity and Change

http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/96ranchos/96ranchos.htm

Understand the ways in which ranchos in northern New Mexico provide evidence of the ability of Hispano culture to adapt to new influences while still maintaining its traditional character.  Standard 8.8.5

 

Hispanic Heritage Month

http://www.history.com/classroom/hhm/

This History Channel Site has a photo contest for high school students, film clips online, and teaching materials to use with History Channel videos.

 

Guide to Latin Music

http://www.caravanmusic.com/GuideLatinMusic.htm

Organized by country, this site by Caravan Music has descriptions of the Latino musicians and music. Caution students that this links to sites to purchase the music. 

 

Hispanic Reading Room

http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/onlinecol.html

This section of the Library of Congress site features resources for students researching topics about the history of Spanish and Portuguese activities and influences in America.  

 

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/ghtreaty/

Text of the treaty by which the United States gained not only Texas but New Mexico and Upper California. Through this treaty, approximately 78,000 residents of these lands became American citizens.  Standard 8.8.6

 

Mexican American (Chicano) Civil Rights Movement

http://www.lasculturas.com/component/option,com_weblinks/catid,128/Itemid,23/

This set of links by the Las Culturas project provides resources to study the Latino civil rights movement.  Included is a brief Mexican-American history and a history of Mexicans in California. Standard 11.10.5

 

American Life History

http://rs6.loc.gov/wpaintro/wpahome.html

These life histories were written by Folklore Project staff of the Federal Writers' Project for the U.S. Works Progress (later Work Projects) Administration (WPA) from 1936-1940. If you search by the states New Mexico or Texas, you will get many oral histories of Hispanic Americans describing the life and folklore of both areas. Because the historians interviewed many of the elderly, the information on life in the late 19th century is extensive.

 

 

Children's Literature

 

Account, The: Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca's Relacion (Recovering the Us Hispanic Literary Heritage) by Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca, Martin A. Favata, and Jose B. Fernandez

                       

Across the Northern Frontier: Spanish Explorations in Colorado by Phil Carson

 

Alvar Nuníez Cabeza de Vaca: A Preliminary Report on his Wanderings in Texas by Brownie Ponton

 

Anza Trail and the Settling of California, The by Vladimir Guerrero

 

Best Book of Hispanic Biographies (Fiesta! Siesta! and All the Rest-A!) by Carole Marsh

                       

California Missions (We the People) by Ann Heinrichs

 

California Presidios (American Forts and Their Strategic Importance) by Jack S. Williams

 

California Ranchos (We the People) by Natalie M. Rosinsky

 

Calling the Doves/El Canto De Las Palomas: El Canto De Las Palomas by Juan Felipe Herrera and Elly Simmons

           

Cesar Chavez (Biografias Hispanoamericanas / Hispanic-American Biographies (Spanish) by Mary Olmstead

           

Cesar Chavez (Breaking Barriers) by Jill C. Wheeler

 

Cesar Chavez (Great Hispanic Heritage) by Hal Marcovitz

 

Cesar Chavez: A Voice For Farmworkers (Latino Biography Library) by Barbara C. Cruz

           

Cristina Saralegui: A Real-Life Reader Biography by Valerie Menard

 

Conquistadores, The: Building a Spanish Empire in the Americas (Proud Heritage: the Hispanic Library) by R. Conrad Stein

 

Diego Rivera (Hispanics of Achievement) by James D. Cockcroft

 

Edward James Olmos (Hispanic Heritage) by Elizabeth Coonrod Martinez

 

Ellen Ochoa (Biografias Hispanoamericanas/Hispanic-American Biographies (Spanish) by Teresa Iverson

 

Ellen Ochoa: First Latina Astronaut (Famous Latinos) by Lila Guzman and Rick Guzman

 

Ellen Ochoa: The First Hispanic Woman in Space (The Library of Astronaut Biographies) by Joy Paige

           

Exploration of the California Coast: The Adventures of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, Francis Drake, Sebastian Vizcaino, and Other Explorers of North America's West Coast (Exploration & Discovery) by Clarissa Aykroyd

 

Famous Mexican Americans by Janet Nomura Morey and Wendy Dunn

 

Famous People of Hispanic Heritage (Famous People of Hispanic Heritage) by Barbara J. Marvis, Valerie Menard, Christine Granados, and Susan Zannos

 

Father Junipero Serra and the California Missions: And the California Missions (Proud Heritage-the Hispanic Library) by Sarah Bowler

 

Fire in My Hands: Revised and Expanded Edition by Gary Soto

 

Fray Juan Crespi (Latinos in American History) by John Bankston

 

From Coronado to Escalante: The Explorers of the Spanish Southwest (World Explorers) by John Miller Morris          

           

Gaspar de Portola (Latinos in American History) by Jim Whiting and Wayne Wilson

 

Hispanic Scientists (Capstone Short Biographies) by Jetty St. John

 

Julian Nava: My Mexican-American Journey (Hispanic Civil Rights (Paperback) by Julian Nava and Henry A. J. Ramos

 

Junipero Serra (Raintree Hispanic Stories) by Jan Gleiter, Kathleen Thompson, and Charles Shaw

 

Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (Latinos in American History) by Kathleen Tracy

           

Mary Joe Fernandez: A Real-Life Reader Biography by Melanie Cole

 

Never Turn Back: Father SerraÕs Mission (Stories of America) by James J. Rawls and Alex Haley

 

Padres of the California Mission Frontier (People of the California Missions) by Jack S. Williams and Thomas L. Davis

 

People Person: The Story Of Sociologist Marta Tienda (WomenÕs Adventures in Science) by Diane O'Connell

 

Ponce De Leon: Exploring Florida And Puerto Rico (In the Footsteps of Explorers) by Rachel Eagen

 

Quinceanera by Mary Lankford

 

Raul Julia (Contemporary Hispanic Americans) by Frank Perez and Ann Weil

 

Robert Rodriguez (Real-Life Reader Biography) by Barbara J. Marvis

           

Sammy Sosa (Overcoming Adversity) by Ann Gaines

 

Soldiers and Their Families of the California Mission Frontier (People of the California Missions) by Jack S. Williams and Thomas L. Davis

 

Spanish Exploration of Florida: The Adventures of the Spanish Conquistadors, Including Juan Ponce De Leon, Panfilo De Narvaez, Alvan Nunez Cabeza De ... De Soto, and pedro (Exploration & Discovery) by William Thompson and Dorcas Thompson

 

Spanish Exploration of the Southwest: The 16th-Century Journeys of Cabeza De Vaca and Coronado Through the Desert Lands of the American Southwest (Exploration & Discovery) by Leonore Wilson

 

Spanish Missions of California (The American West) by Rob Staeger

 

To Fly With the Swallows: A Story of Old California (Stories of America) by Dana Catharine De Ruiz and Debbie Heller

 

Townspeople and Ranchers of the California Mission Frontier (People of the California Missions) by Jack S. Williams and Thomas L. Davis

 

Valley of the Moon: the Diary of Marýýa Rosalia de Milagros by Sherry Garland

 

Way People Live - Life in a California Mission by Eileen Keremitsis

 

When the Mission Padre Came to the Rancho: The Early California Adventures of Rosalinda and Simon Delgado (I Am American) by Gare Thompson