1. AMPUTATION--a surgical operation used to remove an hand, arm, foot or leg.

2. ANESTHESIA--a drug used to make patients unconscious before surgery.

3. CHLOROFORM--the most common anesthesia used in the Civil War.

4. DYSENTERY--a disease of the intestines which caused severe diarrhea.

5. LIGATURE--tying ends of blood vessels in the body to stop bleeding.

6. MINNIE BALL--bullet fired from rifles during the Civil War.

7. MORPHINE--a very powerful pain-killing drug used during the Civil War.

8. SCALPEL--a small, sharp knife used by surgeons to cut through skin and other soft tissue.

9. STYPTICS--drugs which absorb blood and stop bleeding.

10. SUTURES--silk thread stitches used to sew up wounds.

11. TOURNIQUET--a device which wraps around an arm or leg and is tightened to stop bleeding.

12. TYPHOID FEVER--a very deadly disease caused by bad food and water.

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service